X.T. (XiaoTian) Wang (王晓田) is a professor and the director of the Applied Psychology program at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (Shenzhen). He is also a professor emeritus at the University of South Dakota. He was a visiting or adjunct professor at Peking University, China Europe International Business School, Max Planck Institute in Berlin, Germany, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and Singapore Management University.  His research interests involve behavioral decision-making, risk management, and evolutionary and neural psychology. His original tri-reference point theory has advanced the studies of behavioral decision-making and received research attention and further empirical examinations across multiple disciplines. He has published papers in more than 30 professional journals across different disciplines. He co-edited the book Thus Spake Evolutionary Psychologists (Wang & Su, 2011, Peking University Press, Japanese Ed. 2018, University of Tokyo Press) and published the book The Wisdom of Evolution and Rationalities of Decision Making (Wang & Lu, 2016, CENU Press). Citations of his research appear in multiple textbooks and popular media, such as Time magazine online, Wall Street Journal, Science News, Yahoo News, et al. Professor Wang is a fellow of the Psychonomic Society. Professor X.T. Wang is a fellow of Psychonomic Society, the principal investor of research grants sponsored by NSF, James McDonnell Foundation, KC Wang Foundation, and National Natural Science Foundation of China, and served as ad hoc reviewer for the US National Science Foundation, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong. He also provided training courses for managers from Panasonic, IBM. China Merchants Bank, China Mobile, and many private companies.


¨ Human decision making in social, economic, organizational and cultural contexts

¨ Risk perception, and risk management

¨ Evolutionary, ecological and social rationality of decision making under risk and uncertainty

¨ Framing and cue use in risky choices

¨ Reference point-dependent decision making

¨ Intertemporal choice, delay discounting, and social discounting

¨ Brain and body mechanisms of decision making

Awards and honors
  • 2019
  • 2010
  • 1993
  • 1992
  • 1988
  • 1987
  • 1982
  • 01


    Acta Psychologica Best Editor Award. August, 2019

  • 02


    Sonica Chinese Academy of Sciences K.C. Wong Research Award, China, March, 2010

  • 03


    APA Graduate Paper Competition Award, Southwestern Psychological Association, Corpus Christi, TX, USA, April, 1993

  • 04


    Young Investigator Award, Human Behavior and Evolution Society, Albuquerque, NM, USA, July 1992

  • 05


    Graduate Fellowship, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA, 1988-1993

  • 06


    Research Fellowship, Primate Research Institute, Holloman Air Force Base, NM, USA, 1987-1988

  • 07


    National Graduate Scholarship, Department of Education, China, 1982-1985



·       Wang, X.T. & Lu, J. (2016). The Wisdom of Evolution and Rationalities of Decision Making (Book series of Contemporary Psychological Science, Yang, Y., Ed.), ECNU Press. 

·       Wang, X.T. & Su Y.J. (Eds. 2011). Thus Spake Evolutionary Psychologists, Beijing: Peking University Press.

Journal Special Issue:

·       Wang, X.T. (2002) Guest Editor, Journal of Bioeconomics for two special issues on Bioeconomics, Law, and Evolutionary Psychology, 2001-2002.

Peer-Reviewed Research Articles (* - Corresponding author in multi-author papers):

·       Wang*, XT, Wang*, P., Lu, J., Zhou, J., Li, G. & Garelik, S. (2022). Episodic future thinking and anticipatory emotions: Effects on delay discounting and preventive behaviors during COVID-19. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 14, 1–20. 

·       Yang, X., Wang, W., Wang*, X.T. & Wang*, Y.W. (2021). A meta-analysis of hormone administration effects on cooperative behaviors: Oxytocin, vasopressin, and testosterone. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 126, 430443.


·      Long, P. A. & Wang*, X.T. (2021). Embodied cognition and the psychophysiological effects of pain examined with traditional and new behavioral measures. Illness, Crisis & Loss. DOI:10.1177/10541373211020667 

·      Li, H. & Wang*, X.T. (2021). Cyber-personality and Liking expression: A sample from WeChat users in China. Frontiers in Psychology: Human-Media Interaction. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.626040

·      Wang, X.T.*, Wang, N., & He, J. (2021). The hypothesis of anticipatory emotions as information for social risks: Examining emotional and cultural mechanisms of risky decisions in public. Advances in Psychological Science, 29 (6), 959966. 王晓田, 王娜,何金波  (2021). 前瞻性情绪作为社会风险的信息源假说:公共场景下风险决策的情绪及文化机制探讨.《心理科学进展》 29(6), 959966. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00959

·      Gao, J. Wang, P., Wang, X.T. Sun Q, & Liu* Y. (2020). The effects of other’s reference points and psychological distance on self-other tradeoffs in gains and losses. 高娟, 王鹏, 王晓田, 孙倩,刘永芳 (2020).得失情境下他人参照点及心理距离对自我-他人利益权衡的影响. Acta Psychologica Sinica中国心理学报》52(5), 633–644. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.001

·       Wang, P., Wang*, X.T., Gao, J., Li, X., Xu, J. (2020). adaptive time management: The effects of death awareness on time perception and intertemporal choice. Acta Psychologica Sinica. 王鹏, 王晓田, 高娟, 黎夏岚, 徐静 (2019). 适应性时间管理:死亡意识对时间知觉和跨期决策的影响. Acta Psychologica Sinica《中国心理学报》51(12), 13411350. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.001

·       Wang X.T. (2019). Using behavioral economics to cope with uncertainty: Expand the Scope of Effective Nudging. 如何用行为经济学应对不确定性: 拓展有效助推的范围. Acta Psychologica Sinica 《中国心理学报》51(4), 407–414.

·       Wang X.T. (2018). Resource signaling via blood glucose in embodied decision-making. Frontiers in Psychology Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 1965. 

 ·      Xiong, G, Wang*, X.T., Li, A. (2018). Leave or stay as a risky choice: Effects of salary reference points and anchors on turnover intention. Frontiers in Organizational Psychology. 9:686.

 ·      Wang*, X.T., Reed, R., Baugh, L.A., & Fercho, K. (2018). Resource forecasting: Differential effects of glucose taste and ingestion on delay discounting and self-control. Appetite,121, 101-110.

·       Xuan, Y.H., Li, S., Chen, J., Rao, L.L., Wang, X.T., & Zheng*, R. (2017). Genetic and environmental influences on gambling: A meta-analysis of twin studies. Frontiers in PsychologyPersonality and Social Psychology

·       Wang*, X.T. (Xiao-Tian), & Huangfu, G. (2017). Glucose-specific signaling effects on delay discounting in intertemporal choice. Physiology and Behavior,169, 195-201.

·       Wang, X.T. (Xiao-Tian)*, & Huangfu, G. (2017).Neural substrates of framing effects in social contexts: A meta-analytical approach. Social Neuroscience,  12(3), 258-279. 

·       Wang, X.T. (2017). A pointers hypothesis of general intelligence evolved from domain-specific demands (Commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, 47-48.

 ·      Huang, Y., Wei, Z., Shen, L., Wang*, X.T., Ge*, L., He* G., & Li* S. (2017). Decision making in the environment of Internet mass information: Challenges and response patterns. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology23 (3): 195-209.  

·       Long, P. & Wang*, X.T. (2017). Theory of mind in evaluating pain symptoms. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal (PBSIJ), 4(1): 555631.

·       Garelik, S. & Wang*, X.T. (2017). Multiple framing: Verbal, facial, and vocal cues in risky choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 30(2), 322-331.

·       Wang, X.T. (Xiao-Tian), Zheng, R., Xuan, Y., Chen, J.  & Li, S*. (2016). Not all risks are created equal: A twin study and meta-analyses of risk-taking across seven domains. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(11), 1548-1560.

·       Wang, X.T.*, Ong, L. S., Tan, J. H. (2015). Sense and sensibility of ownership: Effects of ownership experience on valuation of goods. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 58,171-177.

·       Oliver-Rodriguez, J. C.* & Wang, X. T. (2015).  Non-parametric three-way mixed ANOVA with aligned rank tests. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 68, 23-42. 

·        Rao, L, Wang*, X.T., & Li, S. (2015). Investment choice and perceived mating intention regulated by external resource cues and internal fluctuation in blood glucose levels. Frontiers in Psychology: Social and Evolutionary Neuroscience, 5, 1523. 

·       Wang*, X.T., Li, S., Rao, L. (2014). Conservation combats exploitation: Choices within an evolutionary framework (Commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(4), 437-438.

·        Xiong, G, Li, A, & Wang*, X.T. (2014). An analysis of wage gap and turnover decisions based on Tri-Reference Point theory. Advances in Psychological Science, 22. 1363-1371.

·        Hu, Z. & Wang*, X.T. (2014). Trust or not: Trust-based choice heuristics in HR management. Journal of Business Research, 67,1710-1716.

·        Wang*, X.T. & Wang, P. (2013). Tri-reference point theory of decision making: From principles to applications. Advances in Psychological Science, 21, 1-16.

·        Wang*, X.T. & Johnson, G. J. (2012). A tri-reference point theory of decision making under risk. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(4), 743-756.

·        Zheng, H., Wang*, X.T. & Zhu, L.* (2010). Framing Effects: Behavioral dynamics and neural basis. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3198-3204.

·        Wang*, X.T. & Dvorak, R. D. (2010). Sweet Future: Fluctuating blood glucose levels affect future discounting. Psychological Science, 21, 183-188. (Featured in Time magazine, Wall Street Journal, Science Daily, True/, Rodale News, etc.  

·        Wang, X.T. (2010). Six issues in methodology of behavioral research. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 42, 37-40.

·        Wang*, X.T., Kruger, D. & Wilke, D (2009)Life history variables and risk taking propensity. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30, 77-84

·        Wang*, X.T. & Sang, K. (2009). Salary expectation and job choice: An empirical test of the tri-reference point theory. Chinese Psychological Science, 32, 21-24.

·         Ziebarth, G. & Wang*, X.T. (2009). Consumers’ preference for choice strategies examined in two task domains. In F. Saito (Ed.), Consumer Behavior. New York: Nova Science Publisher (ISBN 978-1-60692-3948).

·         Wang, X.T. (2008). Risk communication and risky choice in context: Ambiguity and ambivalence hypothesis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1128, 78-89.

·         Wang, X.T. (2008). Decision heuristics as predictors of public choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 21, 77-89. Featured in Science News article “Simpleminded Voters” 

·         Zhang, W. H. & Wang*, X.T. (2008). Self-framing, risk perception and risky choice. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 40, 633-641.

·         Kruger*, D. J., Wang, X.T. & Wilke, A. (2007). Towards the development of an evolutionarily valid domain-specific risk-taking scale.  Evolutionary Psychology, 5, 555-568. 

·         Wang, X.T. (2007). Evolutionary psychology of investment decisions: Studies of expected personal money allocation and differential parental investment in sons and daughters. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 39, 406-414.

·         Wang, X.T. (2006) Emotions within reason: Resolving conflicts in risk preference. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 1132-1152.

·         Wang*, X.T. & J. S. Simons (2005). Reference points-dependent tradeoffs in intertemporal decision making (Commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 663-664.

·         Wang, X.T. (2004). Self-framing of risky choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 17, 1-16.

·         Keller*, M., Gummeran, M., Wang, X.T. & Lindsey, S. (2004). Understanding perspectives and emotions in contract violation: Development of deontic and moral reasoning. Child Development, 75, 614-635.

·         Xie*, X.F. & Wang, X.T. (2004). Reference points and managers’ cognitive characteristics in risky situations. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 36, 575-585.

·         Krauss*, S., & Wang, X.T. (2003). The psychology of the Monty Hall problem: Discovering psychological mechanisms for solving a tenacious brain teaserJournal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 3-22

·         Savina*, E.A. & Wang, X.T. (2003). Risky choice in social contexts. Psikhologicheskii Zhurnal (Journal of Psychology, Russian Acad Sci), 24, 23-30.

·         Xie, X.F. Wang*, X.T. (2003). Risk perception and risky choice: Situational, informational and dispositional effects. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 6, 117-132.

·         Xie*, X.F. & Wang, X.T. (2002). Achievement motive and opportunity-threat perception. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 34, 192-199.

·         Wang, X.T. (2002). Risk as reproductive variance. Evolution and Human Behavior23, 35-57.

·         Wang*, X.T., Simons, F., & Brédart, S. (2001). Social cues and verbal framing in risky choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 14, 1-15.

·         Wang, X.T. (2001). Introduction: Bounded Rationality of Economic Man: New Frontiers in Evolutionary Psychology and Bioeconomics. Journal of Bioeconomics, 3, 83-89.

·         Landa, J. & Wang*, X.T. (2001). Bounded rationality of economic man: Decision making under ecological, social and institutional constraints. Journal of Bioeconomics, 3, 217-235. Republished in Chinese translationNew Philosophy, 2008, 8, 280-297. Wang, Z.J. Ed., Beijing, Daxiang Press.

·        Wang, X.T. (2000). How can we be rational in a world of risks and uncertainties? Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 347-352.

·        Wang, X.T. (2000). Beyond “pardonable errors by subjects and unpardonable ones by psychologists” (Commentary), Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 699-700.

·        Wang, X.T. (2000). From Simon’s scissors for rationality to ABC’s adaptive toolbox (Commentary).

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 765-766. 

·        Rode, C., & Wang, X.T. (2000). Risk-sensitive decisions examined in an evolutionary frameworkAmerican Behavioral Scientist, 43, 926-939.

·        Wang*, X.T. & Hertwig, R. (1999). How is maternal survival related to reproductive success? (Commentary)). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 236-237.  

·        Wang, X.T. (1996). Framing effects: Dynamics and task domains.  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 68, 145-157.

·        Wang, X.T. (1996). Domain-specific rationality in human choices: Violations of utility axioms and social contexts.Cognition, 60, 31-63.

·        Wang, X.T. (1996). Evolutionary hypotheses of risk-sensitive choice: Age differences and perspective change. Ethology and Sociobiology, 17, 1-15.

·        Wang*, X.T., & Johnston, V. (1995). Perceived social context and risk preference: A re-examination of framing effects in a life-death decision problem. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 8, 279-293.

·        Wang, X.T., & Johnston*, V. (1993). Changes in cognitive and emotional processing with reproductive status. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 42, 39-47. 

·        Wang*, X.T., & Johnston, V., & Oliver, J. (1992). Evoked brain potential studies of emotional and cognitive processes: Emotional adaptation hypothesis. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 24, 406-414.

·        Johnston*, V., & Wang X.T. (1991). The relationship between menstrual phase and the P3 component of ERPs. Psychophysiology, 28, 400-409.

·       O'Hair*, D., Cody, M.J., Wang, X.T. & Chao, E.Y. (1990). Vocal stress and deception detection among Chinese. Communication Quarterly, 38, 158-169. 

·       Wang, Xiao Tian, & Li, Chu Jie (1988).  Studies on cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) and plasma cAMP responses during ET and EP hyperthermic ceiling and hyperthermic ceiling plus pyrogen loading. Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology, 4, 208-211.

·        Wang, Xiao Tian, & Li, Chu Jie (1986). Study on the fever reaction during hyperthermic ceiling and hyperthermic ceiling plus pyrogen loading. Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology, 2 28-30.

Book Chapters:

·        Wang, X.T. (2020). Financial decision making under uncertainty: Psychological coping methods. In T. Zaleskiewicz & J. Traczyk (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on financial decision-making (pp. 187–200). Springer, Cham. DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-45500-2_9 ISBN: 978-3-030-45499-9.

·        Wang*, X.T., Rao, L, & Zheng, H. (2016). Framing effects: Behavioral dynamics and neural basis. In M. Reuter & C. Montag (Eds.) (pp. 145-165). Neuroeconomics. Springer, New York. ISBN: 978-3-642-35922-4 (Print) 978-3-642-35923-1 (Online)

·        Wang, X.T. (2016). Parental investment theory. In V.A. Weekes-Shackelford & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, New York, Springer. 

·        Wang*, X.T. & Su Y.J. (Eds. 2011). Evolutionary psychology: Achievements, experiences and frontiers (in Chinese).  In X.T. Wang, & Su, Y.J. (Eds.) Thus Spake Evolutionary Psychologists (pp. 1-4). Beijing: Peking University Press.

·         Wang, X.T. (2011). Evolutionary psychology of decision making at risk. In X.T. Wang, & Su, Y.J. (Eds.) Thus Spake Evolutionary Psychologists (pp. 198-208). Beijing: Peking University Press.

·         Wang, X.T.  (2002). A kith-and-kin rationality in risky choices: Empirical examinations and theoretical modeling. In F. Salter (Ed.), Risky Transactions: Trust, Kinship, and Ethnicity (pp. 47-70). Oxford, UK: Berghahn Books.

Literary Production & Creative Writing:

·         Wang, X.T. (2020). 王晓田《是我杀了卡扎菲》豆瓣阅读


CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available 

·         Wang, X.T. (2021). 王晓田《撒谎CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:撒谎/

·         Wang, X.T. (2021). 王晓田《猫眼看人高CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:猫眼看人高/

·         Wang, X.T. (2020). 王晓田《肉多多和大脑袋的故事CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:肉多多和大脑袋的故事/

             ·         Wang, X.T. (2020). 王晓田 《大脑袋和大脑袋的故事 CND-HuaXiaWenKu [On-line],    Available:大脑袋和大脑袋的故事/

             ·          Wang, X.T. (2019). 王晓田《诗意的认知成分CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:诗意的认知成分 

 ·         Wang, X.T. (2017). 王晓田 大脑袋的故事: 启蒙教育》 CND-HuaXiaWenKu [On-line], Available:

  ·         Wang, X.T. (2017). 王晓田《花一生的时间》CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

  ·         Wang, X.T. (2017). 王晓田 大脑袋的故事 () CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:


  ·         Wang, X.T. (2017). 王晓田 中国印象》CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

  ·         Wang, X.T. (2017). 王晓田 大脑袋的故事 () CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

  ·         Wang, X.T. (2016, February 24). 王晓田 大脑袋的故事. CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

                   ·         Wang, X.T. (2013 December 14). Ephemeral Blossom: To Marina Tsvetaeva (1892-1941). 王晓田瞬间的绽放: 献给玛丽娜茨维塔耶 Available:

              ·         Wang, X.T. (2012 December 6). Heavenly Questions. 王晓田《天问   


              ·         Wang, X.T. (2011 October 22). Four implications from the Legacy of Steve Jobs. 王晓田 乔布斯传奇的四点启示Available:

 ·         Wang, X.T. (2010 January 24). The Caribbean Sea under the Night Sky.王晓田《夜幕下的加勒比海 CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available

  ·         Wang, X.T. (2010 January 3). Einstein in love. 王晓田 爱情中的爱因斯坦 CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

              ·         Wang, X.T. (2009 November 21). Global Village. 王晓田 地球村 CND-HuaXiaWenKu [On-line], Available:

  ·         Wang, X.T. (2007 May 31). If I were asked to be a Janitor: A Comparison between Chinese and American Career Expectations.  王晓田《假如让我当一名清洁工: 中美从业观比较》CND-huaXiaWenKu, Available:

 ·         Wang, X.T. (2007 January 3). Poet, W.C. & Artistic Standards 王晓田《诗人, 厕所, 与艺术标准 CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

 ·         Wang, X.T. (2005, September 27). "Five year's itch" in the workplace and the "'70s-'80s" generation gap.  王晓田 职场生涯的五年之痒70-80“代沟 CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

  ·         Wang, X.T. (2005, May 15). Alcohol and Woman. 王晓田《美酒与女人CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

  ·         Wang, X.T. (2005, March 7). On Chinese and American cultures. 王晓田 中美文化散议 CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

              ·         Wang, X.T. (2004). Nostalgic love 王晓田 依恋. In L. Aurora (Ed.), Our 100 most famous poets (p. 79), Talent, Oregon: Famous Poets.

  ·         Wang, XiaoTian. (2003). Unmatched Experience. 王晓田 曾经沧海难为水.Prelude for Wang, Lu's Reminiscences. Hong Kong, TianMa Press.

  ·         Wang, XiaoTian. (2003, June 30). Communist Manifesto Revisited 王晓田《重读共产党宣言论》CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

  ·         Wang, XiaoTian. (2002, September 2). Doves, sparrows, the homeless and rules of games (two essays) 王晓田 鸽子,小鸟,流浪汉与游戏规则二则CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

  ·         Wang, XiaoTian. (2002, January 6). Dialogue with an ex-angel 王晓田 与前任天使对话CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

  ·         Wang, XiaoTian. (1999, February 26). Human myth: A report by an explorer from Mars 王晓田 人的神话CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available:

  ·         Wang, XiaoTian. (1999, January 8). On values of lives and weighting functions. 王晓田 也谈人性理性加权“》CND-HuaXiaWenKu, Available: 

 ·         Wang, XiaoTian. (1998, October 14). Men and women 王晓田《男人与女人CND-HuaXiaWenZhai, Available:

  ·         Wang, XiaoTian. (1996, January 7). Search my root in LongZhong. 王晓田《寻根访陇中GangSu Daily, p. 4.

  ·         Wang, Xiao Tian. (1992, December). Mission 王晓田《使命The IFCSS Newsletter, 4, p. 13.

  ·         Wang, Xiao Tian. (1991, August 23). A lover letter sent to the motherland 王晓田《寄回祖国的情诗Freedom of Press Herald, p. 4.