Prof. B. T. Zhu received a medical degree from Fudan University Medical College, a Ph.D. in pharmacology from University of Texas, and postdoctoral fellowship from Rutgers University. In 1998, he was appointed as Assistant Professor at the University of South Carolina, and later as Associate Professor (2002), Professor (2004), the Frank and Josie P. Fletcher Distinguished Professor (2005), and Department Chairman and Director there. In 2007, Prof. Zhu joined the University of Kansas School of Medicine as the permanent William W. Abercrombie Distinguished Professor in Cancer Research. Currently, he is a Presidential Chair Professor in the School of Life and Health Sciences at CUHK-Shenzhen. Prof. Zhu has published over 130 peer-reviewed publications, with ~8000 citations (Google Scholar). Over the years, Prof. Zhu has received a number of research awards, including the Burroughs Wellcome Toxicology-Teratology Award and the American Cancer Society Research Scholar Award. 

Academic Publications

Selected Publications 

Wang P, Mills LH, Song JH, Yu J and Zhu BT* [2017] Lack of cell proliferative and tumorigenic effects of 4-hydroxyestradiol in the anterior pituitary of rats: Role of ultra-rapid O-methylation catalyzed by pituitary membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase. Chemical Research in Toxicology 30: 1448-1462. [PMID: 28616971]

Wang P and Zhu BT* [2017] Unique effect of 4-hydroxyestradiol and its methylation metabolites on lipid and cholesterol profiles in ovariectomized female rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 800: 107-117. [PMID: 28219710]

Wang P, Dang L and Zhu BT* [2016] Use of computational modeling approaches in studying the binding interactions of compounds with human estrogen receptors. Steroids 105: 26–41. [PMID: 26639429] ( Review article)

Yamabe N, Kang KS, Lee W, Kim SN and Zhu BT* [2015] Estriol blunts postprandial blood glucose rise in male rats through regulating intestinal glucose transporters. American Journal of Physiology — Endocrinology and Metabolism 308: E370-E379. [PMID: 25516546]  

Tang Y, Chen R, Huang Y, Li G, Huang Y, Chen J, Duan L, Zhu BT*, Thrasher JB, Zhang X and Li B [2014] Natural compound alternol induces oxidative stress-dependent apoptotic cell death preferentially in prostate cancer cells. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 13: 1526-1536. [PMID: 24688053] 

Choi HJ and Zhu BT* [2014] Role of cyclin B1/Cdc2 in mediating Bcl-XL phosphorylation and apoptotic cell death following nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest. Molecular Carcinogenesis 53: 125-137. [PMID: 22949227] 

Zhang EY and Zhu BT* [2014] Estriol strongly inhibits DNCB-induced contact dermatitis: Role of antigen-specific antibodies in pathogenesis. Endocrine Connections 3: 161-172. [PMID: 25150251] 

Wang P, McInnes C and Zhu BT* [2013] Structural characterization of the binding interactions of various endogenous estrogen metabolites with human estrogen receptor α and β subtypes: A molecular modeling study. PLoS ONE 8(9): e74615. [PMID: 24098659] 

Jiang XR, Wang P, Smith CL and Zhu BT* [2013] Synthesis of novel estrogen receptor antagonists using metal-catalyzed coupling reactions and characterization of their biological activity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 56: 2779-2790. [PMID: 23448346] 

Kang KS, Yamabe N, Wen Y, Fukui M and Zhu BT* [2013] Beneficial effects of natural phenolics on levodopa methylation and oxidative neurodegeneration. Brain Research 1497: 1-14. [PMID: 23206800] (Figure 7 of this paper was featured on the journal cover for that issue.) 

Fukui M, Kang KS, Okada K and Zhu BT* [2013] EPA, an omega-3 fatty acid, induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: Role of ROS accumulation, caspase 8 activation, and autophagy induction. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 114: 192-203. [PMID: 22903547]

Fu X, Wang P, Fukui M, Long C, Yin L, Choi HJ and Zhu BT* [2012] PDIp is a major intracellular oestrogen-storage protein that modulates tissue levels of estrogen in the pancreas. Biochemical Journal 447: 115-123. [PMID: 22747530] 

Choi HJ and Zhu BT* [2012] Critical role of cyclin B1/Cdc2 up-regulation in the induction of mitotic prometaphase arrest in human breast cancer cells treated with 2-methoxyestradiol. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1823: 1306-1315. [PMID: 22580043]  

Fukui M, Choi HJ and Zhu BT* [2012] Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondron-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 262: 156-166. [PMID: 22575170] 

Choi HJ, Fukui M and Zhu BT* [2011] Role of cyclin B1/Cdc2 up-regulation in the development of mitotic prometaphase arrest in human breast cancer cells treated with nocodazole. PLoS ONE 6: e24312. [PMID: 21918689] 

Fu XM, Wang P and Zhu BT* [2011] Characterization of the estradiol-binding site structure of human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). PLoS ONE 6(11): e27185. [PMID: 22073283] 

Fu XM and Zhu BT* [2011] Both PDI and PDIp can form stable disulfide-linked complexes with thermally-unfolded RNase containing native disulfide bonds: Insights into the disulfide recognition. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1814: 487-495 [PMID: 21238616] 

Fu XM, Wang P and Zhu BT* [2011] Characterization of the estradiol-binding site structure of human pancreas-specific protein disulfide isomerase: Indispensable role of the hydrogen bond between PDIp-His278 and the estradiol 3-hydroxyl group. Biochemistry 50: 106-115 [PMID: 21080683]

Choi HJ, Kang KS, Fukui M and Zhu BT* [2011] Role of JNK?p53?GADD45α apoptotic cascade in oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. British Journal of Pharmacology 162: 175-192. [PMID: 20955365]  

Wang Y, Denisova JV, Kang KS, Fontes JD, Zhu BT* and Belousov AB [2010] Neuronal gap junctions are required for NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity: Implications in ischemic stroke. Journal of Neurophysiology 104: 3551-3556 [PMID: 20943940]

Zhu BT*, Wu KY, Wang P, Cai MX and Conney AH [2010] O-Methylation of catechol estrogens by human placental catechol-O-methyltransferase: Inter-individual differences in sensitivity to heat inactivation and to inhibition by dietary polyphenols. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 38: 1892-1899. [PMID: 20606002] 

Wang P, Bai HW and Zhu BT* [2010] Structural basis for certain naturally occurring bioflavonoids to function as reducing co-substrates of cyclooxygenase I and II. PLoS ONE 5(8): e12316. [PMID: 20808785] 

Kang KS, Wen Y, Yamabe N, Fukui M, Bishop SC and Zhu BT* [2010] Dual beneficial effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on levodopa methylation and neurodegeneration: in vitro and in vivo studies. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11951. [PMID: 20700524] 

Fu XM and Zhu BT* [2010] Human pancreas-specific protein disulfide isomerase (PDIp) can function as a chaperone independently of its enzymatic activity by forming stable complexes with denatured substrate proteins. Biochemical Journal 429: 157-169. [PMID: 20423326] 

Kang KS, Wang P, Yamabe N, Fukui M, Jay T and Zhu BT* [2010] Docosahexaenoic acid induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo via reactive oxygen species formation and caspase 8 activation. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10296. [PMID: 20421971] 

Yamabe N, Kang KS and Zhu BT* [2010] Beneficial effect of 17β-estradiol on hyperglycemia and islet β-cell functions in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 249: 76-85 [PMID: 20801139]

Fukui M, Choi HJ and Zhu BT* [2010] Mechanism for the protective effect of resveratrol against glutamate-induced neuronal death in HT22 cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 49: 800-813 [PMID: 20542495] 

Fukui M, Yamabe N, Kang KS and Zhu BT* [2010] Growth-stimulatory effect of resveratrol in human cancer cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis 49: 750-759 [PMID: 20572158] 

Fukui M, Yamabe N and Zhu BT* [2010] Resveratrol attenuates the anticancer efficacy of paclitaxel in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. European Journal of Cancer 46: 1882-1891. [PMID: 20223651] 

Fukui M and Zhu BT* [2010] Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase SOD2, but not cytosolic SOD1, plays a critical role in protection against glutamate-induced oxidative stress and cell death in HT22 neuronal cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 48: 821-830. [PMID: 20060889]

Zhu BT* [2010] On the general mechanism of selective induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes by chemicals: Some theoretical considerations. Expert Opinions on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 6: 483-494. [PMID: 20113197]

Zhang EY, Chen AY and Zhu BT* [2009] Mechanism of dinitrochlorobenzene-induced dermatitis in mice: Role of specific antibodies in pathogenesis. PLoS ONE 4(11): e7703. [PMID: 19890385] 

Fukui M, Song JH, Choi JY, Choi HJ and Zhu BT* [2009] Mechanism of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in culture HT22 cells. European Journal of Pharmacology 617: 1-11. [PMID: 19580806] 

Wang P, Wen Y, Han GZ, Sidhu PK and Zhu BT* [2009] Characterization of the estrogenic activity of non-aromatic steroids: Are there male-specific estrogen receptor modulators? British Journal of Pharmacology 158: 1796-1807. [PMID: 19888961] 

Fu XM and Zhu BT* [2009] Human pancreas-specific protein disulfide isomerase homolog (PDIp) is an intracellular estrogen-binding protein that modulates estrogen levels and actions in target cells. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 115: 20-29. [PMID: 19429457] 

Zhou R, Fukui M, Choi HJ and Zhu BT* [2009] Induction of a reversible, non-cytotoxic S phase delay by resveratrol: Implications for a mechanism of lifespan prolongation and cancer protection. British Journal of Pharmacology 158: 462-474 [PMID: 19563536] 

Fu X and Zhu BT* [2009] Human pancreas-specific protein disulfide isomerase homolog (PDIp) is redox-regulated through formation of an inter-subunit disulfide bond. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 485: 1-9. [PMID: 19150607] 

Dai X and Zhu BT* [2009] Suppression of T-cell response and prolongation of allograft survival in a rat model by tryptophan catabolites. European Journal of Pharmacology 606: 225-232. [PMID: 19374879] 

Bai HW and Zhu BT* [2009] Identification of a novel haplotype of the human catechol-O-methyltransferase gene. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics 19: 87-89. [PMID: 19077667]

Zhu BT*, Wang P, Nagai M, Wen Y and Bai HW [2009] Inhibition of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated O-methylation of catechol estrogens by major polyphenolic components present in coffee. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 113: 65-74. [PMID: 19095062] 

Fu X, Wang P and Zhu BT* [2008] Protein disulfide isomerase is a multifunctional regulator of estrogenic status in target cells. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 112: 127-137. [PMID: 18840527]

Bai HW, Wang P and Zhu BT* [2008] Characterization of a novel mutant of human catechol-O-methyltransferase with triplet point mutations. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 22: 769-780. (Figure 6 of this paper is featured on the journal cover for that issue.) [PMID: 19020775]

Bai HW and Zhu BT* [2008] Strong activation of cyclooxygenase I and II catalytic activity by dietary bioflavonoids. Journal of Lipid Research 49: 2557-2570. [PMID: 18660529] 

Jiang XR, Wang P, Fu X and Zhu BT* [2008] Chemical synthesis and biochemical characterization of a biotinylated derivative of 17β-estradiol with a long side chain covalently attached to its C-7α position. Steroids 73: 1252-1261. [PMID: 18621069] 

Mills LH, Yu J, Xu XM, Lee AJ and Zhu BT* [2008] Naturally-occurring estradiol-17b-fatty acid esters, but not estradiol-17b, preferentially induce mammary tumorigenesis in female rats: Implications for an important role in human breast cancer. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 229: 332-341. [PMID: 18394671] 

Zhu BT*, Gallo MA, Burger CW Jr, Meeker RJ, Cai MX, Xu S and Conney AH [2008] Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin administration and high-fat diet on the body weight and hepatic estrogen metabolism in female C3H/HeN mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 226: 107-118. [PMID: 17945325] 

Chen AY, Lee AJ and Zhu BT* [2007] Chemical synthesis of six novel 17β-estradiol and estrone dimers and study of their formation catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 isoforms. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 50: 5372-5381. [PMID: 17924615] 

Bai HW, Shim JY, Yu J and Zhu BT* [2007] Biochemical and molecular modeling studies of the O-methylation of various endogenous and exogenous catechol substrates catalyzed by recombinant human soluble and membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferases. Chemical Research in Toxicology 20: 1409-1425. [PMID: 17880176]

Takemura H, Shim JY, Sayama K, Tsubura A, Zhu BT* and Shimoi K [2007] Characterization of the estrogenic activities of Zearalenone and Zeranol in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 103: 170-177. [PMID: 17097287] 

Zhu BT*, Han GZ, Shim JY, Wen Y and Jiang XR [2006] Quantitative structure-activity relationship of various endogenous estrogen metabolites for human estrogen receptor α and β subtypes: Insights into the structural determinants favoring a differential subtype binding. Endocrinology 147: 4132-4150. [PMID: 16728493]  

Vijayanathan V, Venkiteswaran S, Nair SK, Verma A, Thomas TJ, Zhu BT* and Thomas T [2006] Physiological levels of 2-methoxyestradiol interfere with nongenomic signaling of 17β-estradiol in human breast cancer cells. Clinical Cancer Research 12: 2038-2048. [PMID: 16609013] 

Lee WJ and Zhu BT* [2006] Inhibition of DNA methylation by caffeic acid and chlorigenic acid, two common catechol-containing coffee polyphenols. Carcinogenesis 27: 269-277. [PMID: 16081510] 

Lee WJ, Shim JY and Zhu BT* [2005] Mechanisms for inhibition of DNA methyltransferases by tea catechins and bioflavonoids. Molecular Pharmacology 68: 1018-1030. [Figure 11 of this paper was featured on the journal cover.] [PMID: 16037419] 

Zhu BT* [2005] Mechanistic explanation for the unique pharmacologic properties of receptor partial agonists. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 59: 76-89. [PMID: 15795100] 

Zhu BT* and Lee AJ [2005] NADPH-dependent metabolism of 17β-estradiol and estrone to polar and nonpolar metabolites by human tissues and cytochrome P450 isoforms. Steroids 70: 225-244. [PMID: 15784278] 

Liu ZJ, Lee WJ and Zhu BT* [2005] Selective insensitivity of ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells to 2-methoxyestradiol: Evidence for Type II 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as the underlying cause. Cancer Research 65: 5802-5811. [PMID: 15994956]

Zhu BT* [2005] Human and animal spongiform encephalopathies are autoimmune diseases: A novel theory and its supporting evidence. International Review of Neurobiology 63:155-190. [PMID: 15797468] 

Han GZ, Liu ZJ, Shimoi K and Zhu BT* [2005] Synergism between the anticancer actions of 2-methoxyestradiol and microtubule-disrupting agents in human breast cancer. Cancer Research 65: 387-393. [PMID: 15695378] 

Lee JA and Zhu BT* [2004] NADPH-dependent formation of polar and nonpolar estrogen metabolites following incubations of 17β-estradiol with human liver microsomes. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 32: 876-883. [PMID: 15258114]

Nagai M, Conney AH and Zhu BT* [2004] Strong inhibitory effects of common tea catechins and bioflavonoids on the O-methylation of catechol estrogens catalyzed by human liver cytosolic catechol-O-methyltransferase. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 32: 497-504. [PMID: 15100171]

Liu ZJ and Zhu BT* [2004] Concentration-dependent mitogenic and antiproliferative actions of 2-methoxyestradiol in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 88: 265-275. [PMID: 15120420]

Lee AJ, Conney AH and Zhu BT* [2003] Human cytochrome P450 3A7 has a distinct high catalytic activity for the 16α-hydroxylation of estrone, but not 17β-estradiol. Cancer Research 63: 6532-6536. [PMID: 14559847]

Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH and Zhu BT* [2003] Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17β-estradiol and estrone formed by fifteen selectively-expressed human cytochrome P450 isoforms. Endocrinology 144: 3382-3398. [PMID: 12865317] 

Zhu BT* [2002] On the mechanism of homocysteine pathophysiology and pathogenesis: A unifying hypothesis. Histology and Histopathology 17: 1283-1291. [PMID: 12371153]

Zhu BT* [2002] Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation metabolism of endogenous bioactive catechols and modulation by endobiotics and xenobiotics: Importance in pathophysiology and pathogenesis. Current Drug Metabolism 3: 321-349. [PMID: 12083324] 

Lee AJ, Mills LH, Kosh JW, Conney AH and Zhu BT* [2002] NADPH-dependent metabolism of estrone by human liver microsomes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 300: 838-849. [PMID: 11861789] 

Zhu BT*, Cai MX, Spink DC, Hussain MM, Busch C, Ranzini A, Lambert GH, Thomas PE and Conney AH [2002] Stimulatory effect of cigarette smoking on the 15α-hydroxylation of 17β-estradiol by human term placenta. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 71: 311-324 [PMID: 12011817] 

Xu S, Zhu BT* and Conney AH [2002] Effect of clofibrate administration on the esterification and deesterification of steriod hormones by liver and extrahepatic tissues in rats. Biochemical Pharmacology 63: 985-992. [PMID: 11911851] 

Xu S, Zhu BT*, Turan V, Rusyn I, Thurman R, Peters JM, Gonzalez FJ and Conney AH* [2001] PPARα-dependent induction of liver microsomal esterification of estradiol and testosterone by a prototypical peroxisome proliferator. Endocrinology 142: 3554-3557. [PMID: 11459802] 

Mills LH, Lee AJ and Parlow AF and Zhu BT* [2001] Preferential growth stimulation of mammary glands over uterine endometrium in female rats by a naturally occurring estradiol-17β-fatty acid ester. Cancer Research 61: 5764-5770. [PMID: 11479213] 

Lee AJ, Kosh JW, Conney AH and Zhu BT* [2001] Characterization of the NADPH-dependent metabolism of 17β-estradiol to multiple metabolites by human liver microsomes and selectively-expressed human cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 298: 420-432. [PMID: 11454902]  

Xu S, Zhu BT and Conney AH* [2001] Stimulatory effect of clofibrate on the action of estradiol in the mammary gland but not in the utuers of rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 297: 50-56. [PMID: 11259527]

Xu S, Zhu BT and Conney AH* [2001] Stimulatory effect of clofibrate and gemfibrozil administration on the formation of fatty acid esters of estradiol by rat liver microsomes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 296: 188-197. [PMID: 11123380]  

Zhu BT*, Kosh JW, Fu JH, Xu S, Cai MX and Conney AH [2000] Strong inhibition of estrone-3-sulfatase activity by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile but not by several analogs lacking a 16α-nitrile group. Steroids 65: 521-527. [PMID: 10978731] 

Zhu BT*, Patel UK, Cai MX and Conney AH [2000] Metabolic O-methylation of tea polyphenols catalyzed by human placental cytosolic catechol-O-methyltransferase. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 28: 1024-1030. (Figure 6 of this paper was featured on the journal cover of that issue.) [PMID: 10950844]

Zhu BT* [1999] A novel hypothesis for the mechanism of action of P-glycoprotein as a multidrug transporter. Molecular Carcinogenesis 25: 1-13. (Figure 1 of this paper was featured on the journal cover of that issue.) [PMID: 10331739]

DiPaola RS*, Zhang H, Lambert G, Mecker R, Licitra E, Rafi MM, Zhu BT, Spaulding H, Goodin S, Toledano MB, Hait WN and Gallo M [1998] Clinical and biologic activity of an estrogenic herbal combination (PC-SPES) in prostate cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 339: 785-791. [PMID: 9738085] 

Zhu BT* and Conney AH [1998] Is 2-methoxyestradiol an endogenous estrogen metabolite that inhibits mammary carcinogenesis? Cancer Research 58: 2269-2277. [PMID: 9622057] 

Huang MT*, Lou YR, Xie JG, Ma W, Lu YP, Yen P, Zhu BT, Newmark H and Ho CT [1998] Effect of dietary curcumin and dibenzoylmethane on formation of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors and lymphomas/leukemias in Sencar mice. Carcinogenesis 19: 1697-1700. [PMID: 9771944]

Zhu BT, Loder DP, Cai MX, Ho CT, Huang MT and Conney AH* [1998] Dietary administration of an extract from rosemary leaves enhances the liver microsomal metabolism of estrogens and decreases their uterotropic action in CD-1 mice. Carcinogenesis 19: 1821-1827. [PMID: 9806165] 

Zhu BT, Taneja N, Loder DP, Balentine DA and Conney AH* [1998] Effects of tea polyphenols and flavonoids on liver microsomal glucuronidation of estradiol and estrone. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 64: 207-215. [PMID: 9605416] 

Zhu BT and Conney AH* [1998] Functional role of estrogen metabolism in target cells: Review and perspectives. Carcinogenesis 19: 1-27. [PMID: 9472688]  PDF

Sarabia SF, Zhu BT, Kurosawa T, Tohma M and Liehr JG* [1997] Mechanism of cytochrome P450-catalyzed aromatic hydroxylation of estrogens. Chemical Research in Toxicology 10: 767-771. [PMID: 9250410]

Hammond DK, Zhu BT, Wang MY, Ricci MJ and Liehr JG* [1997] Cytochrome P450 metabolism of estradiol in hamster liver and kidney. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 145: 54-60. [PMID: 9221823] 

Zhu BT, Lech J, Rosen RT and Conney AH* [1997] Effect of dietary 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole on the metabolism and action of estradiol and estrone in female CD-1 mice. Cancer Research 57: 2419-2427. [PMID: 9192820] 

Zhu BT* [1996] Rational design of receptor partial agonists and possible mechanisms of receptor partial activation: A theory. Journal of Theoretical Biology 181: 273-291. [PMID: 8869127]

Zhu BT and Liehr JG* [1996] Inhibition of catechol O-methyltransferase-catalyzed O-methylation of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol by quercetin: Possible role in estradiol-induced tumorigenesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 271: 1357-1363. [PMID: 8576124] 

Zhu BT, Evaristus EN, Antoniak SK, Sarabia SF, Ricci MJ and Liehr JG* [1996] Metabolic deglucuronidation and demethylation of estrogen conjugates as a source of parent estrogens and catecholestrogen metabolites in Syrian hamster kidney, a target organ of estrogen-induced tumorigenesis. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 136: 186-193. [PMID: 8560473] 

Zhu BT, Suchar LA, Huang MT and Conney AH* [1996] Similarities and differences in the glucuronidation of estradiol and estrone by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in liver microsomes from male and female rats. Biochemical Pharmacology 51: 1195-1202. [PMID: 8645343]

Liehr JG, Ricci MJ, Jefcoate CR, Hanningan EV, Hokanson JA and Zhu BT [1995] 4-Hydroxylation of estradiol by human uterine myometrium and myoma microsomes: Implications for the mechanism of uterine tumorigenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 92: 9220-9224. [PMID: 7568105] 

Zhu BT, Bui QD, Weisz J and Liehr JG* [1994] Conversion of estrone to 2- and 4-hydroxyestrone by hamster kidney and liver microsomes: Implications for the mechanism of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Endocrinology 135: 1772-1779. [PMID: 7956900] 

Zhu BT and Liehr JG* [1994] Quercetin increases the severity of estradiol-induced tumorigenesis in hamster kidney. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 125: 149-158. [PMID: 8128490] 

Zhu BT, Ezell EL and Liehr JG* [1994] Catechol-O-methyltransferase-catalyzed O-methylation of mutagenic flavonoids: Metabolic inactivation as possible reason for their lack of carcinogenicity in vivo. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269: 292-299. [PMID: 8276810] 

Zhu BT* [1993] The competitive and noncompetitive antagonism of receptor-mediated drug actions in the presence of spare receptors. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 29: 85?91. [PMID: 8318718] 

Zhu BT and Liehr JG* [1993] Inhibition of the catechol-O-methyltransferase-catalyzed O-methylation of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol by catecholamines: Implications for the mechanism of estrogen?induced carcinogenesis. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 304: 248-256. [PMID: 8323288] 

Zhu BT, Roy D and Liehr JG* [1993] The carcinogenic activity of ethinyl estrogens is determined by both their hormonal characteristics and their conversion to catechol metabolites. Endocrinology 132: 577-583. [PMID: 8381068] 

Seitz P, Zhu BT and Cooper CW* [1992] Effect of transforming growth factor-β on parathyroid hormone receptor binding and cAMP formation in rat osteosarcoma cells. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 7: 541-546. [PMID: 1319667]