YAP Foong Ha


YAP Foong Ha

Associate Professor

Education Background:
BS (Southeast Asia Union College, Singapore)

MA (University of California, Los Angeles, USA)

PhD (University of California, Los Angeles, USA)
Office Address

TB524 Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, 2001 Longxiang Road, Longgang District, Shenzhen, China 518172

Teaching Area

language change (grammaticalization studies), language typology, discourse analysis


Language change (grammaticalization studies), Language typology and language universals, Language acquisition and language processing, Discourse-pragmatic studies




Yap, Foong Ha, Karen Grunow-Hårsta & Janick W rona (eds). (2011). Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and Typological Perspectives. [Typological Studies in Language 96]. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. (796 pages) https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.96



Yap, Foong Ha, Abhishek Kumar Kashyap and Hongyin Tao. (in progress). Special issue on “Attitudinal Interrogatives in Interactive Talk”. Journal of Pragmatics.

Iwasaki, Shoichi and Foong Ha Yap (guest editors). (2015). Special Issue on “Stance-taking and Stance- marking in Asian Languages”. Journal of Pragmatics 83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2015.04.008


Yap, Foong Ha, & Caesar Suen Lun (guest editors). (2010). Special Issue on “Stance Phenomena in Chinese: Diachronic, Discourse and Processing Perspectives”. Taiwan Journal of Linguistics, 8(2), December issue. doi:10.6519/TJL.2010.8(2).i    http://tjl.nccu.edu.tw/main/uploads/8.2_Preface__.pdf http://tjl.nccu.edu.tw/main/volumes/97/titles/tw



Yap, Foong Ha and Huiling Xu. (in press). Indefiniteness, interrogativity, and speaker stance: insights from the extended uses of ‘what’-words  in Chaozhou. In the proposed special issue on “Attitudinal interrogatives in interactive talk” (guest editors: Foong Ha Yap, Abhishek Kumar Kashyap, & Hongyin Tao). Journal of Pragmatics.

Ahn, Mikyung and Foong Ha Yap. (2022). On the evolution of a multifunctional discourse marker: a Discourse Grammar analysis of Korean   com. Journal of Pragmatics 195: 31-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2022.04.010

Ahn, Mikyung and Foong Ha Yap. (2022). On the face-threat attenuating functions of Korean   com: Implications for internal and external dialogic processing in interaction. In the special issue on “Stance Triangle and Double Dialogiality”, ShoichiIwasaki (ed.), Text& Talk. https://doi.org/10.1515/text-2020-0217

Ahn, Mikyung and Foong Ha Yap. (2022). On the extended uses of-ki and -m nominalization constructions as face-threat mitigators in Korean. Lingua 274.Online103230 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2021.103230 

Ahn, Mikyung and Foong Ha Yap. (2021). On the relationship between middles and passives: A polyfunctional analysis of -eci in Contemporary Korean. Language and Linguistics 22(2): 213-242. https://doi.org/10.1075/lali.00081.ahn


Mwinlaaru, Isaac N. and Foong Ha Yap. (2021). Syntactic position, qualitative features and extended functions of demonstratives: Dagaare distal demonstratives nὲ and lὲ in interactional discourse. Journal of Pragmatics 182:255-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.01.033


Deng, Yi Serena, Foong Ha Yap and Winnie Oi-Wan Chor. (2020). Negative attitudinal uses of quantifier classifier di45 in Wugang Xiang. Journal of Pragmatics 160: 14-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2020.02.010


Ahn, Mikyung and Foong Ha Yap. (2020). “That being so, but …”: An analysis of Korean kunyang as a marker of speaker’s attenuated divergent stance. Journal of Pragmatics 160: 31-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.12.010


Brosig, Benjamin, Foong Ha Yap and Kathleen Ahrens. (2019). Assertion, presumption and presupposition: An account of the erstwhile nominalizer YUM in Khalkha Mongolian. Studies in Language 43(4): 896-940. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.07.012


Yap, Foong Ha and Mikyung Ahn. (2019). Development of grammatical voice marking in Korean: on the causative, middle and passive uses of suffix -i. Lingua 219: 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2018.11.002


Wai, Lap-ming Brian and Foong Ha Yap. (2018). Inclusivity and exclusivity in the use of Cantonese ngo5dei6 (‘we’) in evasive replies in Hong Kong political discourse. Discourse & Society 29(6): 691-715. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926518802917


Brosig, Benjamin, Gegentana and Foong Ha Yap. (2018). Evaluative uses of postnominal possessives in Central Mongolian. Journal of Pragmatics 135: 71-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.07.012


Chen, Weirong and Foong Ha Yap. (2018). Pathways to adversity and speaker-affectedness: On the emergence of unaccusative ‘give’ constructions in Chinese. Linguistics: An Interdisciplinary Journal of the Language Sciences 56(1): 19-68. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2017-0038


Ahn, Mikyung and Foong Ha Yap. (2017). From middle to passive: A diachronic analysis of Korean -eci constructions. Diachronica: International Journal of Historical Linguistics    34(4): 437-469. https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.16037.ahn


Yap, Foong Ha, Yi Deng, and Marco Caboara. (2017). Attitudinal nominalizers in Chinese: Evidence of recursive grammaticalization and pragmaticization. Lingua 200: 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2017.07.011


Mwinlaaru, Isaac Nuokyaa-Ire and Foong Ha Yap. (2017). A tale of two distal demonstratives in Dagaare: Reflections on directionality principles in grammaticalisation. Language Sciences 64: 130-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2017.07.005


Kashyap, Abhishek Kumar and Foong Ha Yap. (2017). Epistemicity, social identity and politeness marking: A pragmatic analysis of Bajjika verbal inflections. Linguistics: An Interdisciplinary Journal of the Language Sciences 55(3): 413-450.  https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2017-0002


Chor, Winnie Oi-wan, Foong Ha Yap and Tak-sum Wong. (2016). Chinese interrogative particles as talk coordinators at the right periphery – A discourse-pragmatic perspective. Special issue on “Periphery—A locus for interaction. Diachronic and cross-linguistic approaches”, guest-edited by Yuko Higashiizumi, Noriko O. Onodera & Sung-Ock Sohn. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 17(2): 178-207. https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.17.2.02cho


Wong, Ming-chiu Steven and Foong Ha Yap. (2015). ‘Did Obamacare create new jobs?’—An analysis of Mitt Romney’s use of rhetorical questions in the 2012 US presidential election campaign. Text & Talk 35(5): 643-668. https://doi.org/10.1515/text-2015-0018


Chan, Shuk-ling Ariel and Foong Ha Yap. (2015). “Please continue to be an anime lover”: The use of defamation metaphors in Hong Kong electoral discourse. Journal of Pragmatics 87: 31-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2015.07.001


Iwasaki, Shoichi and Foong Ha Yap. (2015). Introduction article for the special issue on “Stance-marking and Stance-taking in Asian Languages”. Journal of Pragmatics 83: 1-9 (July issue). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2015.04.008


Yang, Ying and Foong Ha Yap. (2015). “I am sure but I hedge”: fear expression kongpa as an interactive rhetorical strategy in Mandarin broadcast talk. Special issue on “Stance-marking and Stance-taking in Asian Languages”, Journal of Pragmatics 83: 41-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2015.04.013


Ahn, Mikyung and Foong Ha Yap. (2015). Evidentiality in interaction: A pragmatic analysis of Korean hearsay evidential markers. Studies in Language 39(1): 46-84. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.39.1.03ahn


Ahn, Mikyung and Foong Ha Yap. (2014). On the development of Korean ‘say’ evidentials and their extended pragmatic functions. Diachronica: International Journal of Historical Linguistics 31(3): 299-336. https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.31.3.01ahn


Ahn, Mikyung and Foong Ha Yap. (2013). Negotiating common ground in discourse: A diachronic and discourse analysis of maliya in Korean. Language Sciences 37: 36-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2012.07.001


Yap, Foong Ha, Jiao Wang & Charles Tsz-Kwan Lam. (2010). Clausal integration and the emergence of mitigative and adhortative sentence-final particles in Chinese. Special Issue on Stance Phenomena in Chinese: Diachronic, Discourse and Processing Perspectives. Taiwan Journal of Linguistics 8(2): 63-86. http://tjl.nccu.edu.tw/main/uploads/8.2-3Yap_1.pdf https://doaj.org/article/ac8d3b02082c46528b09619407ff3432


Yap, Foong Ha & Karen Grunow-Hårsta. (2010). Non-referential uses of nominalization constructions: Asian perspectives. Invited review article for Language and Linguistics Compass 4(12): 1154-1175.


Yap, Foong Ha, Patrick Chun-kau Chu, Emily Sze-man Yiu, Stella Fay Wong, Stella Wing-man Kwan, Stephen Matthews, Li-hai Tan, Ping Li & Yasuhiro Shirai. (2009). Aspectual asymmetries in the mental representation of events: Role of lexical and grammatical aspect. Memory & Cognition 37(5): 587-595. https://doi.org/10.3758/MC.37.5.587


Yap, Foong Ha & Marianne Celce-Murcia. (2000). The grammar, meaning and referential functions of else. English Language and Linguistics 4(2): 137-181.


Yap, Foong Ha & Yasuhiro Shirai. (1994). On the nature of connectionist conceptualizations and connectionist explanations. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 5: 173-194. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/54h0h18c


Yap, Foong Ha. (1993). A connectionist perspective to second language acquisition research. Gengo no Sekai, 11: 13-41. Reprinted in Eigogaku Shiryo (English Studies), 28, published by Ronsetsu Shiryo Hozon Iinkai (Committee for the Preservation of Research Papers, Japan).


Shirai, Yasuhiro & Foong Ha Yap. (1993). In defense of connectionism. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 4: 119-133. https://escholarship.org/content/qt12n7d83v/qt12n7d83v.pdf


 Yap, Foong Ha. (1992). What an authentic discourse sample has to say about English conditionals: Implications for ESL/EFL instruction. Gengo no Sekai, 10: 95-125. Reprinted in Eigogaku Shiryo (English Studies), 26, published by Ronsetsu Shiryo Hozon Iinkai (Committee for the Preservation of Research Papers, Japan).




Yap, Foong Ha and Winnie Oi-Wan Chor. (2019). The development of Chinese pragmatic markers: diachronic perspectives. In The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Discourse Analysis, Chris C.-C. Shei (ed.), chapter 15, pp. 230-243. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315213705-16


Gipper, Sonja and Foong Ha Yap. (2019). Life of =ti: Uses and grammaticalization of a subordinating nominalizer in Yurakaré. Nominalization in the Languages of the Americas: Synchronic, Diachronic and Areal Perspectives, Roberto Zariquiey, Masayoshi Shibatani and David Fleck (eds), chapter 9, pp. 365-392. [Typological Studies in Language]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.124.09gip


Yap, Foong Ha, Ariel Shuk-ling Chan and Brian Lap-ming Wai. (2017). Constructing political identities through characterization metaphor, humor and sarcasm: An analysis of the 2012 Legislative Council Election debates in Hong Kong. Not Just a Laughing Matter: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Political Humor in China [The Humanities in Asia 5], King-fai Tam and Sharon R. Wesoky (eds), pp. 147-167. Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London: Springer.

DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-4960-6_9 147


Liu, Hongyong and Foong Ha Yap. (2017). 汉语定语从句的名物化分析 [A nominalization-based analysis of Chinese relative clauses]. In Sze-wing Tang (ed.), 《汉语“的”的研究》[Studies of the Particle De in Chinese], pp. 197-218. Beijing: Peking University Press. (ISBN 978-7-301-28086- 7)


Yap, Foong Ha, Ying Yang and Tak-Sum Wong. (2014). On the development of sentence final particles (and utterance tags) in Chinese. In Kate Beeching & Ulrich Detges (eds), Discourse Functions at the Left and Right Periphery: Crosslinguistic Investigations of Language Use and Language Change. [Studies in Pragmatics 12], pp. 179-220. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004274822_009


Yap, Foong Ha and Winnie Oi-Wan Chor. (2014). Epistemic, evidential and attitudinal markers in clause-medial position in Cantonese. In Werner Abraham & Elisabeth Leiss (eds), Modes of Modality, 219-260. [Studies in Language Companion Series 149]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.149.08yap


Yap, Foong Ha, Winnie Chor and Jiao Wang. (2012). On the development of epistemic ‘fear’ markers:  An analysis of Mandarin kongpa and Cantonese taipaa. Covert Patterns of Modality, Werner Abraham & Elisabeth Leiss (eds), 312-342. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars.


Yap, Foong Ha, & Karen Grunow-Hårsta & Janick Wrona. (2011). Nominalization strategies in Asian languages. In Foong Ha Yap, Karen Grunow-Hårsta & Janick Wrona (eds), Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and Typological Perspectives. [Typological Studies in Language 96], pp. 1-57. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.96.01yap


Yap, Foong Ha, & Jiao Wang. (2011). From light noun to nominalizer and more: The grammaticalization   of zhe and suo in Old and Middle Chinese. In Foong Ha Yap, & Karen Grunow-Hårsta & Janick Wrona (eds), Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and Typological Perspectives. [Typological Studies in Language 96], pp. 61-107. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.96.02yap


Yap, Foong Ha. (2011). Referential and non-referential uses of nominalization constructions in Malay. In  Foong Ha Yap, & Karen Grunow-Hårsta & Janick Wrona (eds), Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and Typological Perspectives. [Typological Studies in Language 96], pp. 627-658. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.96.22yap


Yap, Foong Ha, Choi Pik-ling & Cheung Kam Siu. (2010). De-lexicalizing di: How a Chinese  noun has evolved into an attitudinal nominalizer. In An Van linden, Jean-Christophe Verstraete & Kristin Davidse (eds.), in collaboration with Hubert Cuyckens. Formal Evidence in Grammaticalization Research. [Typological Studies in Language 94], pp. 63-91. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.94.04yap


Cheung, Him, Foong Ha Yap & Virginia Choi-yin Yip. (2010). Chinese bilingualism. In Michael H.  .   Bond (ed.), The Handbook of Chinese Psychology, pp. 123-142. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199541850.013.0010


Tam, Wai-ming, & Foong-ha Yap. (2008). Construction of teacher’s knowledge: A developmental approach. In John Chi-kin Lee and Ling-po Shiu (eds.), Developing Teachers and Developing Schools in Changing Contexts, pp. 47-69. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Education Research/Chinese University Press. https://aims.cuhk.edu.hk/converis/portal/detail/Publication/49755711?auxfun=&lang=en_GB


Yap, Foong Ha, & Stephen Matthews. (2008). The development of nominalizers in East Asian and Tibeto-Burman languages. In María José López-Couso & Elena Seoane (eds.), in collaboration with Teresa Fanego. Rethinking grammaticalization: New perspectives (Typological Studies in  Language 76), pp. 309-341. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.76.15yap


Yap, Foong Ha, Yumi Inoue, Yasuhiro Shirai, Stephen Matthews, Ying Wai Wong, & Yi Heng Chan.  (2006). Aspectual asymmetries in Japanese: Insights from a reaction time study. In Timothy Vance and Kimberly Jones (eds.), Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 14, pp. 113-124. Stanford, CSLI   (Center for the Study of Language and Information).


Yap, Foong Ha, Stephen Matthews, & Kaoru Horie. (2004). From pronominalizer to pragmatic marker: Implications for unidirectionality from a crosslinguistic perspective. In Olga Fischer, Muriel Norde & Harry Perridon (Eds.), Up and Down the Cline: The Nature of Grammaticalization. [Typological Studies in Language 59], pp. 137-168. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.59.08yap


Yap, Foong Ha & Shoichi Iwasaki. (2003). From causative to passive: A passage in some East and Southeast Asian languages. In Eugene Casad & Gary Palmer (Eds.), Cognitive Linguistics and Non- Indo-European Languages [Cognitive Linguistics Research 18], pp. 419-446. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197150.10.419


Lord, Carol, Foong Ha Yap, & Shoichi Iwasaki. (2002). Grammaticalization of ‘give’: African and Asian perspectives. In Ilse Wischer & Gabriele Diewald (Eds.), New Reflections on Grammaticalization [Typological Studies in Language 49], pp. 217-235. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.49




Wong Tak-sum, Yang Ying and Foong Ha Yap. (2017, accepted). 利用語料庫分析廣州話“唔知”及其相關負面感情態度語句──否定、不定及情態間之關係 [A corpus analysis of Cantonese m4zi1 (‘don’t know’) and related negative attitudinal expressions: Implications for the relationship between  negation, indefiniteness and stance]. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Yue Dialects.


Tamaji, Mizuho, Yumiko Kawanishi and Foong Ha Yap. (2014). On the development of sentence final kke   in Japanese. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of the Pragmatics Society of Japan (PSJ), volume 9.


Yap, Foong Ha, Jiao Wang and Kazuhiro Sakurai. (2010). On the grammaticalization of demonstratives: A crosslinguistic perspective. Proceedings of the Seoul International Conference on Linguistics (SICOL-2010). Korea University, Seoul. June 23-25.


Yap, Foong Ha, Charles Tsz-kwan Lam & Jiao Wang. (2009). Multiple pathways in the emergence of sentence final particles in Chinese: A comparison of er yi yi and ye yi yi. Online Proceedings of the Second International Conference on East Asian Linguistics, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, November 7-9, 2008. http://www.sfu.ca/gradlings/wp_2.html


Yap, Foong Ha. (2007). Nominalization and predication in East Asian languages. Invited submission for the Proceedings of the Third Seoul International Conference on Discourse and Cognitive Linguistics: Cognition, Meaning, Implicature and Discourse, pp. 501-517. Seoul: Discourse and Cognitive Linguistics Society of Korea.


Yap, Foong Ha, & Shoichi Iwasaki. (2007). The emergence of ‘GIVE’ passives in East and Southeast Asian languages. In Mark Alves, Paul Sidwell and David Gil (eds.), SEALS VIII: Papers from the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, pp. 193-208. http://pacling.anu.edu.au/catalogue/SEALSVIII_final.pdf


Yap, Foong Ha, Stella Wing-man Kwan, Emily Sze-man Yiu, Patrick Chun-kau Chu, & Stella Fat Wong. (2006). Assessing aspectual asymmetries in human language processing. In Antonis Botinis (ed.), Proceedings of ISCA (International Speech and Communication Association) Tutorial and Research Workshop on Experimental Linguistics, Athens, August 28-30, pp. 257-260. http://www.phil.uoa.gr/~abotinis/Workshop_2006.pdf


Yap, Foong Ha, Stella Wing-man Kwan, Patrick Chun-kau Chu, Emily Sze-man Yiu, Stella Fat Wong, Stephen Matthews, & Yasuhiro Shirai. (2006). Aspectual asymmetries in the mental representation of events: Significance of lexical aspect. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (abbreviated CogSci 2006), pp. 2410-2415. Vancouver, Canada, July 26-29. http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/CSJarchive/Proceedings/2006/docs/p2410.pdf


Chan, Yi Heng, Foong Ha Yap, Yasuhiro Shirai, & Stephen Matthews. (2004). A perfective-imperfective asymmetry in language processing: Evidence from Cantonese. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Chinese Languages and Linguistics, pp. 383-391.Academia Sinica and the Graduate Institute of Linguistics, National Taiwan University, Taipei.


Iwasaki, Shoichi & Foong Ha Yap. (2000). 'Give' constructions in Thai and beyond: A cognitive and grammaticalization perspective. Proceedings of the International Conference on Tai Studies, July 29- 31, 1998, pp. 371-382. Bangkok: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University.


Yap, Foong Ha & Shoichi Iwasaki. (1998). 'Give' constructions in Malay, Thai and Mandarin Chinese: A polygrammaticization perspective. In M. Catherine Gruber, Derrick Higins, Kenneth S. Olson, &   Tamra Wysocki (Eds.), CLS 34, Part 1: Papers from the Main Session, pp. 421-437. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.




Yap, Foong Ha. (1991). Book notice on "The Inward Ear: Poetry in the Language Classroom". TESOL Quarterly, 24: 731-732.